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Thursday, August 15, 2019

RoHS 3 Directive


We know that full form of RoHS is Restriction of Hazardous Substances. It influences the whole electronics and electrical products. Here we will see the details about RoHS 3 directive and the particulars which will make our electrical and electronics products RoHS 3 compliant.

More details about RoHS, RoHS Substances and WEEE you can get from;

"RoHS and RoHS Substances"

"RoHS and WEEE for e-Waste"

What is RoHS 3 directive?

Let before understanding the RoHS 3 directive let get some details about RoHS 1 and RoHS 2.

The initial RoHS is Directive 2002/95/EC, where it restricts the use of six hazardous materials present in electrical and electronic products. This is also called as RoHS 1. RoHS is mandatory for all relevant electrical and electronics products in the EU market from July 1, 2006.

Then RoHS 2 is presented i.e. directive 2011/65/EU. It contains CE-marking directive.

Now RoHS 3 is introduced to update the present RoHS directive. RoHS 3 is also known as 2015/863 directive. With the introduction of RoHS 3 directive four extra or additional restricted substances (phthalates) are included or added to the list of previous six substances. Also it adds Category 11 products i.e. All other electrical and electronic equipment. These are not covered in other RoHS categories.

RoHS 3 Directive
RoHS 3

Why to proceed for RoHS 3 compliant products?

Initially the RoHS 1 directive (2002/95/EC) and RoHS 2 directive (2011/65/EU) restricts six hazardous substances. The list of six hazardous substances and their permitted content as follows;

  • Lead(Pb) : 0.1%
  • Mercury: 0.1%
  • Cadmium(Cd): 0.01%
  • Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) : 0.1%
  • Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBB): 0.1 %
  • Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDE): 0.1 %
RoHS 3 directive EU 2015/863 added four more hazardous substances in the old list of six substances. The list of newly added four hazardous substances and their permitted content as follows;

  • Bis(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP): max 0.1%
  • Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP): max 0.1%)
  • Dibutyl phthalate (DBP): max 0.1%
  • Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP): max 0.1%
These newly added substances i.e. phthalates are the chemicals whose applications are for softening the plastics.

Think if these substances are present in toys. These substances cause a severe problem to human being and damages vital human and animal organs. Because of these severe issues RoHS 3 is introduced.

RoHS 3 Directive
RoHS 3 Compliant

RoHS 3 exemptions

Let discuss about all RoHS exempted and impacted categories, here category for RoHS 3 exemptions also included.

As per the latest amendment categories 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 11 are impacted from compliance according to schedule 1 of the WEEE Directive. Category 11 is newly added.

Category 8 and category 9 of the RoHS directive are presently exempted from compliance.

List of ROHS product categories;

Category 1 – Large household appliances: refrigerators, stoves, washers, air conditioners

Category 2 – Small household appliances: vacuum cleaners, hair dryers, coffee makers, irons

Category 3 – Computing & communications equipment: computers, printers, copiers, phones

Category 4 – Consumer electronics: DVD players, TVs, stereos, video cameras

Category 5 – Lighting: lamps, lighting fixtures, light bulbs

Category 6 – Power tools: drills, saws, nail guns, sprayers, lathes, trimmers, blowers

Category 7 – Toys and sports equipment: videogames, electric trains, treadmills

Category 8 – Medical devices and equipment

Category 9 – Control and monitoring equipment

Category 10 – Automatic dispensers: vending machines, ATM machines

Category 11 – All other electrical and electronic equipment

Categories 8 and 9 restrictions will go into effect from July 22, 2021. This is an extension given to medical devices and control – monitoring equipment’s. These are the medical and control devices and will take time for replacement. Immediately ban will affect the medical treatments and process.

Below lines are from;

COMMISSION DELEGATED DIRECTIVE (EU) 2015/863 of 31 March 2015

“The restriction of DEHP, BBP, DBP and DIBP shall apply to medical devices, including in vitro medical devices, and monitoring and control instruments, including industrial monitoring and control instruments, from 22 July 2021.”

RoHS 3 effective date

RoHS 3 effective date as per the amended standard;

From July 22, 2019 for all electrical and electronic apparatus other than categories 8 and 9, the restriction on the added four substances is in effect.

From July 22, 2021 categories 8 and 9 restrictions will go into effect.

These RoHS 3 deadlines every manufacturer should note otherwise they won’t get in EU market.

RoHS 3 declaration for products

Manufacturers can now include a new paragraph or statement (along with the old declaration of RoHS 1 and RoHS 2) on the declaration where they can declare;

Confirmation with the latest amendment along with latest directive number.

Mention limits for all the ten substances (adding four phthalates to the list).

For more details about RoHS 3 declaration please contact testing and certification agencies in your respective country.

Conclusion

We know now the importance of RoHS and how it is protecting human and environment from the hazardous substances. Introduction or inclusion of RoHS 3 directive definitely will help everyone and will make us aware about hazardous substances present in a product.

Even manufacturer know knows their responsibility and can’t sell product without declaration.

Saturday, August 3, 2019

Standard Resistor Values


What are Standard Resistor Values?

Standard Resistor Values are the chosen values of resistance which are grouped in different series.

The selection of these resistor values is depends on logarithmic sequence, which decides the placement of different resistance values in such a way that they relate with each other by tolerance.

The advantage of having Standard Resistor Values is that, every resistor manufacturers follows the standard and manufactures these values, by which these resistor values are easily available with competitive price.

Also for a circuit design while selecting a resistor, designer can get reference from list of Standard Resistor Values and choose resistance value matching to his calculated resistance value.

Generally these values are available in the resistor tolerance range of ±1%, ±2%, ±5%, ±10% and ±20%.

To know more about resistors please visit below mentioned articles;

"Resistor and Working of Resistor"

"Electrical Resistance and Resistivity".

E series of Standard Resistor Values

E series is the name of the group of series of the standard resistor values. Here in the series the values are decided such that the upper side tolerance of one resistance value should not cross the lower side tolerance of another resistance value.

The standard resistor values structure is also called as EIA standard resistor values because this is approved by EIA (Electrical Industries Association).

The E series standard resistor values are globally recognized and have been accepted by all organisations who deal with international standards.

E-series of Standard Resistor Values are published in standard IEC 60063:1963.

What is Standard Resistance?

Let understand the Standard Resistance with an example. Consider a resistor of resistance value 1Ω, which have a resistance tolerance of ±20%. This means, the minimum resistance of this resistor will be 0.2Ω and the maximum resistance of this resistor will be 1.2Ω. So, as per resistor standard values the next available resistor value after 1.2Ω will be 1.5Ω.

Further same standard resistor value rule will be followed by 1.5Ω for both side i.e. minimum and maximum resistor tolerance. The minimum resistance value of 1.5Ω with ±20% resistance tolerance is 1.2Ω, which is touching the 1.2Ω value, not overlapping it.

For all the values present in the decade this process is followed and finally it creates a set of different resistance values named as Standard Resistor Values or Resistor Standard Values.
Available Resistor Values with E series

Now we know about E series of Standard Resistor Values. Each E series represents different available resistor values.

Let understand it in detail, here each set of standard resistor values have an identification number i.e. E-series number. Here “E” is constant and “series” denotes the number i.e. 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192.

E1 has 1 resistor values in each decade, E3 has 3 resistor values in each decade, E6 has 6 resistor values in each decade, E12 has 12 resistor values in each decade, E24 has 24 resistor values in each decade, and it continues further.

Standard Resistor Values
A decade of the E6 resistor values

Resistor Tolerance with E series

E1 resistor series have very wide tolerance range and now days it didn’t exist.

Further let understand the E series resistor tolerance with E3 series. As mentioned above 3 resistor values are available in E3 series these are; 1, 2.2 and 4.7. The resistor tolerance is much more than 20%. This is a basic series and rarely used now days because requirement of today’s applications need narrow resistor tolerance, but this series has wide tolerance range.

This series we can found in the application related to electrolytic capacitors where the tolerance requirement is unbalanced i.e. minimum tolerance requirement is less and maximum tolerance requirement is more or vice versa, like tolerance of -20 at minimum side and +70% at maximum side. Also, we can found these series in applications where or for components where pull-up resistor value requirement are not critical.

Next is E6 series which have 6 resistor values in each decade. The resistor tolerance is ±20%.

Let see further E6 series in detail. In E6 series each decade is divided into 6 steps. The size of every step is equal to:

10E(1/6)= 1.44

Below diagram explains it in more detail;

Standard Resistor Values
Resistor Tolerance with E series
Further is E12 series which have 12 resistor values in each decade. The resistor tolerance is ±10%.

E24 series have tolerance range of ±5%. E48 series have tolerance range of ±2%. E96 series have tolerance range of ±1%. E192 series have tolerance range of ≤±0.5%.

Below tables shows summary of different E series and their resistance tolerance;

E series
Available Resistor Values
Resistor Tolerance
E1
1
Very wide tolerance
E3
3
> 20%
E6
6
20%
E12
12
10%
E24
24
5% (some-times 2% also available)
E48
48
2%
E96
96
1%
E192
192
0.5%, 0.25%, 0.1%


Standard Resistor Values Table
Below table shows list of Standard Resistor Values in tabular format;

Standard Resistor Values Table
These values are normally available in the multiples of;
0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1k, and 1M.
E1
E3
E6
E12
E24
E48
E96
E192
E192
(cont.)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3.16

2.2
1.5
1.2
1.1
1.05
1.02
1.01
3.2

4.7
2.2
1.5
1.2
1.1
1.05
1.02
3.24


3.3
1.8
1.3
1.15
1.07
1.04
3.28


4.7
2.2
1.5
1.21
1.1
1.05
3.32


6.8
2.7
1.6
1.27
1.13
1.06
3.36



3.3
1.8
1.33
1.15
1.07
3.4



3.9
2
1.4
1.18
1.09
3.44



4.7
2.2
1.47
1.21
1.1
3.48



5.6
2.4
1.54
1.24
1.11
3.52



6.8
2.7
1.62
1.27
1.13
3.57



8.2
3
1.69
1.3
1.14
3.61




3.3
1.78
1.33
1.15
3.65




3.6
1.87
1.37
1.17
3.7




3.9
1.96
1.4
1.18
3.74




4.3
2.05
1.43
1.2
3.79




4.7
2.15
1.47
1.21
3.83




5.1
2.26
1.5
1.23
3.88




5.6
2.37
1.54
1.24
3.92




6.2
2.49
1.58
1.26
3.97




6.8
2.61
1.62
1.27
4.02




7.5
2.74
1.65
1.29
4.07




8.2
2.87
1.69
1.3
4.12




9.1
3.01
1.74
1.32
4.17





3.16
1.78
1.33
4.22





3.32
1.82
1.35
4.27





3.48
1.87
1.37
4.32





3.65
1.91
1.38
4.37





3.83
1.96
1.4
4.42





4.02
2
1.42
4.48





4.22
2.05
1.43
4.53





4.42
2.1
1.45
4.59





4.64
2.15
1.47
4.64





4.87
2.21
1.49
4.7





5.11
2.26
1.5
4.75





5.36
2.32
1.52
4.81





5.62
2.37
1.54
4.87





5.9
2.43
1.56
4.93





6.19
2.49
1.58
4.99





6.49
2.55
1.6
5.05





6.81
2.61
1.62
5.11





7.15
2.67
1.64
5.17





7.5
2.74
1.65
5.23





7.87
2.8
1.67
5.3





8.25
2.87
1.69
5.36





8.66
2.94
1.72
5.42





9.09
3.01
1.74
5.49





9.53
3.09
1.76
5.56






3.16
1.78
5.62






3.24
1.8
5.69






3.32
1.82
5.76






3.4
1.84
5.83






3.48
1.87
5.9






3.57
1.89
5.97






3.65
1.91
6.04






3.74
1.93
6.12






3.83
1.96
6.19






3.92
1.98
6.26






4.02
2
6.34






4.12
2.03
6.42






4.22
2.05
6.49






4.32
2.08
6.57






4.42
2.1
6.65






4.53
2.13
6.73






4.64
2.15
6.81






4.75
2.18
6.9






4.87
2.21
6.98






4.99
2.23
7.06






5.11
2.26
7.15






5.23
2.29
7.23






5.36
2.32
7.32






5.49
2.34
7.41






5.62
2.37
7.5






5.76
2.4
7.59






5.9
2.43
7.68






6.04
2.46
7.77






6.19
2.49
7.87






6.34
2.52
7.96






6.49
2.55
8.06






6.65
2.58
8.16






6.81
2.61
8.25






6.98
2.64
8.35






7.15
2.67
8.45






7.32
2.71
8.56






7.5
2.74
8.66






7.68
2.77
8.76






7.87
2.8
8.87






8.06
2.84
8.98






8.25
2.87
9.09






8.45
2.91
9.2






8.66
2.94
9.31






8.87
2.98
9.42






9.09
3.01
9.53






9.31
3.05
9.65






9.53
3.09
9.76






9.76
3.12
9.88
Prepared by; www.powerelectronicstalks.com

Now days in many datasheets we can see the resistor series is mentioned like; E96 + E24 and E192 + E24 i.e. addition of two E series. To meet market requirement this is purposely done by resistor manufacturers as some resistor values in E24 series are not available in E48, E96 and E192 series. So, to get lower tolerance values like; 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.1% they have added values in E24 series with other series i.e. tolerances.

Standard Resistor Value Formula

Below formula is for standard resistor value calculation;

R = D . 10E(I/N)

Where,
D = Decade multiplier i.e. 1, 10, 100, 1k, 10k
N = Tolerance of E series i.e. 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 20%
I = 0 … N-1
Unit of R is Ω
E is exponent

Let understand by an example, result of a calculation is 257kΩ with the tolerance of 1%.
Check in the table and select the nearest available value i.e. 2.58. Multiply this with a multiplier of 100000 you will get 258kΩ.

Conclusion

Standard resistor values helps in many ways to both resistor manufacturers and circuit designers. The resistor manufacture can produce the resistors which are mentioned in the standard and they don’t have to produce the non-standardized resistors and fill their inventory.

While designing the circuit the design engineer can easily identify and select the resistor value by looking up in the standard resistor value list. Designers can select the value which is closely matching to their calculated value.

Author & Editor

Hi, welcome to my blog, “Power Electronics Talks”.

I am an Electronics Engineer. I am passionate about Power Electronics and latest Technology. By profession I am design and application engineer and play with circuits.

Here at Power Electronics Talks, I write about all the stuffs related to Power Electronics. To share my knowledge I hold the hand of my blog, "www.powerelectronicstalks.com", where I can share all the technical details of Power Electronics and latest technical trends.

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