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**Passive Power Factor Correction method**

There are two types of Passive Power Factor Correction method;

1) Capacitor Input Filter

2) Valley Fill Power Factor Correction

Here we will discuss about Valley Fill Passive Power Factor Correction method.

Valley Fill Passive Power Factor Correction method
is generally a circuit of two electrolytic capacitors, a resistor and two
diodes.

The intend of
the Valley Fill Passive Power Factor Correction method is to let the power
converter to pull power straight off the AC line when the line voltage is larger
than 50% of its peak voltage.

More details like working of Valley Fill Passive Power Factor
Correction method you can find in my previous blog and the link for the same
is;

Below is the circuit diagram of Valley Fill
Passive Power Factor Correction method.

Valley Fill Power Factor Correction Method |

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**Selection of Component values**

Now we will calculate the component values as
per below specifications (consider it as an example).

VAC = 230V

VAC (min) = 90V

VAC (max) = 270V

POUT = 10W

The maximum i.e. highest bus voltage at the input of the
power converter is,

VIN (max) = √2 x VAC
(max)

= √2 x 270VAC

= 381.8V

= 382V

During this time, capacitors placed in the
valley fill circuit (C1 and C2) are in series and charged via the diode D2 and resistor R1.

If the capacitors
have identical capacitance value, the peak
voltage across C1 and C2 is;

VIN (max) / 2 = 191V

Often a 20% variance
in capacitance could be seen between like
capacitors. Therefore a margin of 25% voltage rating should be considered.

Therefore the peak voltage across C1 and C2
becomes; 238.75V = 239V

Once the line drops
below 50% of its peak voltage, the
two capacitors are basically placed in parallel. The
bus voltage VIN (min) is the lowermost voltage value at the power
converter input.

VIN (min) at the minimum AC line voltage is,

VIN (min) = [√2 x VAC
(min)] / 2

= [√2 x 90V] / 2 = 63.63V = 64V

At 60Hz, the total i.e. full time of a half AC line
cycle is 8.33ms.

The power to the power converter is derived
from the valley-fill capacitors when the AC line voltage is equal to or less
than 50% of its peak voltage.

The holdup time for
the capacitors equates to;

tHOLD = (1/3) × 8.33ms =
2.77ms

The valley-fill capacitor value can then be
calculated as,

CTOTAL = {[POUT/ VIN (min)] x tHOLD} / VDROOP

= {[10/ 64] x 0.00277} / 20

= {0.1562 x 0.00277} / 20

= 0.000432 / 20

= 0.0000216

= 21µF

Therefore, C1 = C2 = 10µF

VDROOP is the voltage droop (drop) on the
capacitors when they are delivering or supplying full power to the power converter.

Ideally VDROOP should be set to less
than;

VDROOP = VIN (min) – VLED (max)

In order to ensure continuous load conduction
at low line voltage.

Anyway, VDROOP is set to be 20V in
the design example to avoid or prevent the need of very large valley-fill electrolytic
capacitor.

A 20V VDROOP implies or indicates that the bus
voltage VIN at the input of power converter will drop to 40V during part
of the AC line cycle.

Let consider an example of the buck regulator,
which needs VIN to be larger than the load voltage for regulation; the
load will be off through part of the AC line cycle.

This has the consequence of reducing the real
output load current at low AC input voltage. In this design example, the load
current falls by roughly 20% from its nominal value at 90Vac.

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**Conclusion**

Valley Fill Passive Power Factor Correction method
is a low cost method for power factor improvement. This circuit can help user to
achieve power factor in the range of 0.80 to 0.88.

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